Wirtgen has accused Caterpillar, which is known for its heavy machinery including off-highway trucks and knuckleboom loaders, of infringing its patents through Caterpillar road milling machines and components.
The products in question include scrapers, auxiliary drives, height-adjustable lighting columns, milling drum uncoupling functionality and hydraulically stabilised chassis.
The ITC will set a target date for completion of the investigation within 45 days of its institution.
A recent report from the ITC said Section 337 investigations nearly doubled in 2016.
There were 80 new proceedings in 2016, up from 42 in 2015, with patent infringement being the most frequently investigated unfair practice.